The bicentennial celebrations of Mexico’s Independence took place across Mexico without incident, albeit under heavy security and some restrictions on public access. At the National Palace in Mexico City, President Felipe Calderón gave the traditional “Grito” or Cry of Independence. He was joined by former Presidents Carlos Salinas de Gortari (1988-94) and Vicente Fox (2000-06).
In an interview, Carlos Salinas explained his decision to participate by quoting the words of President Ávila Camacho in 1942, when Mexico entered the Second World War, and Ávila Camacho was also joined by his predecessors in a call for national unity: “We are here — those of yesterday and those of today. While we are united, there is no enemy that can defeat us.”
The other living ex-Presidents, Luis Echeverria (1970-76), Miguel de la Madrid (1982-88), and Ernesto Zedillo (1994-2000), declined Calderón’s invitation.